Upper Limb Pathology
As in other regions of the body the tissues of the upper limb (the bones, joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels) can be affected by a miscellany of conditions, brought about as a result of a number of causes, most easily categorized by the ‘Surgical Sieve’ viz.
Congenital – inherited conditions and those acquired by the embryo
Traumatic – includes sprains, tears and fractures
Degenerative – wear and tear, and aging changes
Infective – bacterial and other infections
Metabolic – osteoporosis
Vascular – conditions affecting the blood and or the blood vessels
Auto-immune – Rheumatoid arthritis, Ankylosing spondylosis, Psoriasis
Endocrine – various conditions of the endocrine glands
Neoplastic – primary tumors uncommon
Ideopathic – conditions of unknown cause
Neurological – pain and weakness
Mind/body ? – Myofascial pain syndrome
While there are a large number of conditions which can affect the upper limb the most common arise as a result of either a degenerative process or an injury and these most predominantly affect the tendons and the joints.