Upper Limb Pathology

As in other regions of the body the tissues of the upper limb (the bones, joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels) can be affected by a miscellany of conditions, brought about as a result of a number of causes, most easily categorized by the ‘Surgical Sieve’  viz.

                     Congenital   –  inherited conditions and those acquired by the embryo

                     Traumatic  –  includes sprains, tears and fractures

                     Degenerative – wear and tear, and aging changes

                     Infective              – bacterial and other infections

                     Metabolic –  osteoporosis

                     Vascular   –  conditions affecting the blood and or the blood vessels

                     Auto-immune  –  Rheumatoid arthritis, Ankylosing spondylosis, Psoriasis

                     Endocrine  –  various conditions of the endocrine glands

                     Neoplastic  –  primary tumors uncommon

                     Ideopathic  –  conditions of unknown cause

                     Neurological  –  pain and weakness

                    Mind/body ?  –  Myofascial pain syndrome


While there are a large number of conditions which can affect the upper limb the most common arise as a result of either a degenerative process or an injury and these most predominantly affect the tendons and the joints.